Almost all societies have some type of class structure. As Robert A.J. McDonald has noted, in the late 1800s and early 1900s Vancouver had notions of class that echoed those of more established cities in Europe and eastern North America. Wealth, education and influence were part of class structure. However, Vancouver retained aspects of its recent frontier past, and Vancouver society remained relatively open and fluid. [R.A.J. McDonald. Making Vancouver: class, status, and social boundaries, 1863-1913. Vancouver, B.C: UBC Press, 1996, page xii.]
A glance at the social columns of the local Vancouver papers reveals a list of seemingly-endless travels of several well-to-do residents and their families. Many people travelled to Europe for vacation or for schooling, often to the United Kingdom, but also to France, Italy and Germany. A few went to Australia and New Zealand, along with Pacific island destinations such as Hawaii and Tahiti. Others went to eastern North America, especially to Ontario and Quebec in Canada, and to New York and other eastern states in the United States. Many people went to California, most often San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Diego. One popular destination was the Hotel del Coronado near San Diego.
For people who took their class structure seriously, the local newspapers published daily columns of local social events. Women who could afford the expenses of regular “at home” gatherings would regularly invite other members of society to their homes. The newspapers would describe the activities of local socialites and the arrivals and departures of family relatives. Men often travelled on business, went hunting and fishing, or took extended trips abroad to get a direct experience of civilized and exotic worlds. Travelling to eastern North America and to parts of Asia was worth at least a mention in the society columns; going to the United Kingdom or Europe was even better. The highest levels of recognition went to those who were having an audience with a member of a European royal family.
This organization of society seems to be related to the historical concept of the Great Chain of Being, which set out a hierarchical structure of all life. [The most famous articulation of this structure is Arthur O. Lovejoy’s The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1936.] The highest being was God, followed by humans, who had their own hierarchy, starting with an emperor, king, queen, or other equivalent, followed by other royal family members, lords, dukes, barons, counts, baronets, knights, religious officials, judges, and other distinguished members of society. Merely being successful in business or in the arts was not always worthy of admission into the hierarchy. Similarly, even though many members of “society” were not wealthy, that presumed level of genteel poverty did not always exclude them from the lists of important society members.
Vancouver, like many other cities, developed a series of directories that listed the names, addresses, and club affiliations of many of its elites. For the early 1900s, there were three Vancouver directories. Although some people chose not to appear in these directories, meaning that the directories are not a complete catalogue of Vancouver society, large numbers of local elites do appear.
The compilers of these directories generally stated their organizing principles in a short foreword. The 1908 directory implied that it was possible to assemble a list of “all persons properly recognized as constituting society.” The 1914 directory had the same general goal, although it “did not assume to pass upon the social status of the residents of Vancouver.” Instead, the object was to “publish the names of families and persons who have been active in the social life of the city.” Similarly, the 1927 directory intended “to list persons who are taking an active part” in society affairs.
The Elite Directory of Vancouver, 1908, http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1908/Elite_Directory_of_Vancouver.
The Vancouver Social Directory and Club Register, 1914, http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1914/Vancouver_Social_Register_and_Club_Directory
The Greater Vancouver Social and Club Register, 1927, http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1927/Greater_Vancouver_Social_and_Club_Register
Several regional and national publications performed a similar function. These books included:
Who’s Who in Western Canada, 1911, http://www.ourroots.ca/e/toc.aspx?id=3121
Who’s Who in British Columbia, 1931, 1933-34, 1937-39, 1940-41, 1942-43, 1944-46, 1947-48, 1949-50, 1953, 1969 (vols. 1-10).
Northern Who’s Who; A Biographical Dictionary of Men and Women, [also called Who’s Who and Why], 1916, https://archive.org/details/northernwhoswhob01park.
Canadian Who’s Who (1910 and various years afterwards), http://www.canadianwhoswho.ca/
Who’s Who in Canada (1911 and various years afterwards)
Social Register of Canada, first edition, 1958; second edition, 1959; third edition, 1961.
Some books seemed to list anyone who chose to pay a subscription fee. Others boasted that they did not charge a fee, and that they included only persons “of worth.”
Selected references on class structure and social registries
R.A.J. McDonald. Making Vancouver: class, status, and social boundaries, 1863-1913. Vancouver, B.C: UBC Press, 1996.
R. A. McDonald and McMaster, L. (“Vancouver’s early life [Making Vancouver: class, status, and social boundaries, 1863-1913]”, Canadian Literature. p. 187, 1999.
Social Register, Wikipedia article, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Register
Arthur O. Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1936.
Richard Conniff, The Natural History of the Rich: A Field Guide. New York, W.W. Norton and Company, 2002.
David Cannadine, The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. New York, Columbia University Press, 1999.
David Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001.